1 Berman, Myron, Richmond's Jewry: Shabbat in Shockoe, 1769-1976 (Charlottesville: 1979); Diner, Hasia R., A Time for Gathering: The Second Migration 1820-1880 (Baltimore: 1992); Evans, Eli, The Provincials: A Personal History of Jews in the South (New York: 1973); Evans, Eli, The Lonely Days were Sundays: Reflections of a Jewish Southerner (Jackson, Miss.: 1993); Nathan Kaganoff and Melvin L. Urofsky, eds., Turn to the South: Essays on Southern Jewry (Charlottesville: 1979); Marcus, Jacob Rader, United States Jewry 1776 -1985 (Detroit: 1989); Whitfield, Stephen J., "The Braided Identity of Southern Jewry", American Jewish History, vol. 77 (1988) 363-387.

2 Willner, Nancy, "A Brief History of the Jewish Community in Charlottesville and Albemarle", The Magazine of Albemarle County History, vol. 40 (1982) 1-25. Willner's article gives a thorough overview of the history of the Jewish community of Charlottesville.

3 Applebome, Peter, "Small Town South Clings to Jewish History", New York Times, Sept. 29, 1991.

4 Feuer , Lewis, "Jews in the Origins of Modern Science and Bacon's Scientific Utopia: The Life and Work of Joachim Gaunse, Mining Technologist and First Recorded Jew in English Speaking North America", The American Jewish Archives, Brochure Series No. VI, 1987; Golden, Harry, Our Southern Landsman (New York: 1974) 24-25; Berman, Richmond's Jewry, 24.

5 Berman, Richmond's Jewry,  8, 18-19, 37, 44, 90.

6 Alexander, James P., Early Charlottesville 1828-1874 (Charlottesville: 1942); Dorsey, John M., ed., The Jefferson- Dunglison Letters, (Charlottesville: 1960); Ginsberg, Louis, Chapters on the Jews of Virginia 1828 - 1874, (Petersburg: 1969); Moore, John Hammond, Albemarle: Jefferson's County (Charlottesville: 1976); Wilner, "A Brief History".

7 Jefferson Papers, Manuscripts Division, Special Collections, University of Virginia Alderman Library.

8 Court Order Books, 1825, 1826, Albemarle County Courthouse; The Commonwealth vs. David Isaacs and Nancy West, General Court of Virginia, Nov. 1826.

9 “Will of David Isaacs, 1837”, Albemarle County, Virginia, Will Book, v. 12, 366.

10 Sanford, Charles B., The Religious Life of Thomas Jefferson (Charlottesville: 1984), 28.

11 "A Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom," in The Portable Thomas Jefferson, ed. Merrill D. Peterson (New York: 1975), 253. Letter to Isaac Harby quoted in Moise, L. C., Biography of Isaac Harby (South Carolina: 1931), 95. On Jefferson's opinion "Report of the Commissioners for the University of Virginia", in The Portable Thomas Jefferson, 343.

12 Feuer, Lewis, "America's First Jewish Professor: James Joseph Sylvester at the University of Virginia," American Jewish Archives 36, No. 2 (1984); Minutes of the Board of Visitors 1841-1842, Special Collections, University of Virginia Alderman Library.

13 Raphaels, Marc Lee, Jews and Judaism in a Midwestern Community: Columbus, Ohio, 1840-1975 (Columbus: 1979), 9-15.

14 Diner, A Time for Gathering.

15 Wilner, p. 9.

16 Albemarle County, Deed Book, v. 65, p. 599.

17 Account books of Congregation Beth Israel; Wischnitzer, Rachel, Synagogue Architecture in the United States: History and Interpretation (Philadelphia)  25-91.

18 "New Synagogue Dedicated", Charlottesville Daily Progress, February 10, 1904, p. 1.

19 Oral history interview with Tillie Miller and Faye Kobre, June 6, 1992.

20 Fitzpatrick, Donovan, and Saphire, Saul, Navy Maverick: Uriah Phillips Levy (Garden City); Hosmer, Charles B., "The Levys and the Restoration of Monticello", American Jewish Historical Quarterly, v. LIII, No. 3 (1964) 219-252.

21 Charlottesville Daily Progress, August 16,1891.

22 Charlottesville Daily Progress, April 20, 1907, May 4, 1907, June 12, 1907, June 25, 1907.

23 "History Outline of the Charlottesville Municipal Band", August 10, 1982, press release from the Municipal Band of Charlottesville.

24 Catalog of the Officers and Students of the University of Virginia, Sixtieth Session, 1883-84 (Richmond: 1884) 58.

25 Feuer, America's First Jewish Professor, p. 186.

26 Oral history interview with Harry and June O'Mansky, October 3, 1991.

27 “Report of the Dean of the College,” in Annual Report to the President, 1926-27, Special Collections, University of Virginia Alderman Library.

28 Here, ironically it was the historically more recent Reform practices, originating in 18th century Germany, that formed the basis of local tradition. Orthodoxy, though historically older in Europe, was newer in America, and often seen as a threat to what the local German Jews considered to be "traditional".

29 Oral history interview with Harry and June O'Mansky, October 3, 1991.

30 Evans, Eli, The provincials: A Personal History of Jews in the South (New York: Atheneum, 1973).